22 Nov New Release Y3df Meet The Johnsons Part 4 ##BEST##
New Release Y3df Meet The Johnsons Part 4
Johnson and the Democrats were ready for the election of 1964. They believed that their responsibility was to pass legislation that would transform America. The votes of the poor who the Johnson administration understood to be its base of support would be needed to do so. With that in mind, the Democratic Party adopted its 1964 platform in June of that year. A platform is a statement or manifesto of the political principles of a party. In June 1964 the Democratic Party published its first platform since 1860.
The 1964 Democratic platform placed emphasis on the importance of civil rights, personal freedom, and minimum employment standards, but it also offered some economic opportunities for the poor, unlike the traditional Republican platforms. Specifically, the 1964 platform included a substantial increase in funding for public assistance programs, to assist low-income workers and families. According to the nonpartisan Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the legislation proposed in the 1964 platform would have provided $5 billion in additional funding. In addition, the 1964 platform included a stronger commitment to support welfare rights than the 1960 platform. There also was a stronger commitment to equal opportunity for African Americans and other minorities, with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 would eventually abolish legal segregation in public education. The labor movement was represented by the endorsement of a permanent increase in the minimum wage and the promotion of employment opportunities for all Americans. In this way, the 1964 Democratic Party platform differed from its predecessors in some significant ways. Republicans of course were outraged by the Democratic Party’s commitment to a strong, activist government.
The voting rights bill of 1965 also contributed to the increase of African Americans as registered voters: by one estimate, the increase in voter registration was 21 percent overall, but among African Americans, it was 63 percent. The bill affected the political power of the South more than that of any other section of the country. It elevated black representation as local politicians to positions of power, and it also raised political awareness and participation. The national level of black voter participation increased from 24 percent in 1964 to 31 percent in 1972. In South Carolina, the number of black elected officials went from 8 in 1964 to 47 in 1973. In 1968, the first African American held statewide office in Alabama in Wilbur Mills (D), and the following year, in South Carolina, the first African American represented the state in the U.S. Congress. In the twenty year period from 1964 to 1984, the number of black members of Congress went from 24 to 80, and this number increased to 288 in 1998. In 1972, Nixon signed the Philadelphia Plan, which required the federal government to give preference in hiring and contracting to minority-owned firms. This plan was scuttled by the Reagan administration, but it was a milestone in the history of the civil rights movement.
The Johnsons encouraged several new church communities in the area. In 1966, he supported the establishment of a new campus of Wilberforce University in Barberton as a way to meet the growing demand for higher education in central Ohio, while at the same time providing a base for the national civil rights movement in Ohio. In the 1960s, Wilberforce quickly became a highly regarded and popular school. It was then that Thurgood Marshall established his home in Barberton, campaigning for the presidency and developing a strong support base. Johnson’s wife, Lady Bird, who was a Sunday school teacher at one of the local churches, later became a leader of the civil rights movement in her own right, beginning the process of desegregating the public schools. Beginning in 1966 and continuing throughout Johnson’s presidency, the Johnsons’ beloved Mandarin Orchard was transformed into a national symbol of the lasting effects of the War on Poverty. The award-winning campus of Ohio State University, also located in suburban Columbus, was originally intended to take in the 1200 students living in the new apartment development in the area. The campus’ size was increased and facilities greatly enhanced to make it a model for urban and suburban colleges alike. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare had been established in 1965, followed by the Department of the Interior in 1966, which had led to the formation of a National Endowment for the Arts and a U.S. Information Service in 1967. President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society also led to the establishment of a variety of social programs including the Job Corps, the Legal Services Corporation, the Office of Economic Opportunity, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. In addition, Johnson’s so-called War on Poverty brought the National Service Corps to the Dayton area, where it organized AmeriCorps in the 1960s.